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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 129-133

Risk factors for asthma hospitalization and emergency department visit in Nigeria: The role of symptoms frequency and drug utilization


1 Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Pharmacology, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
4 Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Olufemi Olumuyiwa Desalu
Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-6691.124395

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Background: Substantial proportion of the economic cost of asthma care is due to hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visit. The objective of our study was to identify the role of frequency of asthma symptoms and drug utilization as risk factors for asthma related hospitalization and ED visit among adult patients in selected hospitals in Nigeria. Patients and Methods: We carried out a cross sectional study of a sample of adult patients in selected hospitals in Nigeria. Demographic, clinical information, and use of asthma medications were obtained from the patients that were hospitalized or visited ED and those not hospitalized or visited ED in previous 12 months. Results: A total of 102 patients participated in the study. Fifty (49.0%) of the patients were hospitalized or visited the ED and 52 (51.0%) were neither hospitalized nor visited ED. Asthma patients who experienced frequent nocturnal symptoms (relative risk (RR)-3.50, 95% confidence interval ( C I) 2.05-4.96), frequent use of rescue medication (RR-2.89, 95% CI 1.66-4.12), increased daytime (RR-2.32, 95% CI 1.32-3.32), and nasal symptoms (RR-2.30, 95% CI 1.11-3.48) were more likely to be hospitalized or visited ED. Patients who used oral theophylline (RR-2.19, 95% CI 1.35-2.33) without doctor's prescription were two times more likely to be hospitalized or visited ED. The use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS, RR-0.69, 95% CI 0.45-0.99) and oral corticosteroids (OCS; RR-0.73, 95% CI 0.00-1.59) were not associated asthma related hospitalization and ED visit. Conclusion: There is a need for pragmatic interventions in patients who reported increased asthma and nasal symptoms, increased use of rescue medication, and nonprescription use of oral theophylline in order to prevent acute asthma hospitalization and emergency visit.


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