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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 115-120

Comparison of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Shailendra Nath Gaur
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-6691.124393

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Introduction: The loss of body mass leading to cachexia is known to exist in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of body composition in asthmatics has not been widely explored. Materials and Methods: Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), percentage of ideal BW (PIBW), fat mass (FM), fat free mass index (FFMI), and midthigh cross-sectional were evaluated in COPD (n = 40) and asthma (n = 40) and compared with 20 healthy controls. Socioeconomic status served as a marker of dietary adequacy. Results: Weight (P < 0.001), BMI (P < 0.01), FMI (P < 0.05), and FFMI (P < 0.001) differed significantly among socioeconomic classes. Significant intergroup differences of weight and FFMI in the upper (P < 0.05) and BMI and PIBW in the upper-middle class (P < 0.05) were seen. BW in COPD was lower than bronchial asthma (BA) (P < 0.001) and controls (P < 0.001). BMI in COPD was lower than BA (P < 0.000) as were PIBW (P < 0.000) and FM (P < 0.001), whereas neither study group differed from controls. FFMI in COPD was lower than BA (P < 0.004) and controls (P < 0.01). No parameter differed between BA and control groups. Comparing by severity of airflow obstruction, all parameters were reduced in COPD, but statistical significance (P < 0.05) was noted for BMI and FFMI in mild/moderate cases and weight, BMI, PIBW, and FM in severe/very severe cases. No significant differences were noted when assessed with respect to severity of either disease. Correlations were noted between FFMI and post bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the 1 st second (FEV) 1 (r = 0.342) and weight and post bronchodilator FEV 1 (r = 0.322) in COPD. Conclusion: COPD produces malnutrition with regards to both fat and fat free components, irrespective of the severity of the disease, whereas asthma bears no such association.

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