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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 59-64

Air pollution and respiratory dysfunction among adolescents: A case–control study from North West India

1 Consultant Pediatrics, J and K Health Services, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College Faridkot, Punjab, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
4 Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Dental Sciences, Sehora, Jammu and Kashmir, India
5 Department of Community Medicine, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Tanda, Himachal Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Varun Kaul
Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot - 151 203, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijaai.ijaai_6_18

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Introduction: Children are vulnerable to the effects of air pollution because of immature organ system and immune system. Air pollutants can lead to both upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. Methodology: Adolescents in the age group of 10–19 years children from residential areas with established maximal and low pollution levels as reported by State Pollution Control Board were included in the study using age-, sex-, weight-, and height-matched case–control study design. For the assessment of respiratory dysfunction, the values of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and forced expiratory flow (FEF) 25%–75% were included in this study. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to ascertain the strength of association. Results: The distribution of abnormalities for a restrictive pattern in males in polluted group was 42% as compared to 29% in low polluted group (P = 0.007). The mean values of pulmonary function parameters FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF 25%–75% (expressed as percentage of predicted values) were compared in two groups, a deficit of approximately 4.5%, 6%, 1.06%, and 3.4% was observed in males versus 4.9%, 6.3%, 2.44%, and 2.4%, respectively for females. Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference in the pulmonary functions in the polluted versus less polluted areas with the children being affected in a harmful manner in the former areas.

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