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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 36  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34-39

A cross-sectional study to evaluate factors responsible for uncontrolled asthma

1 Department of Respiratory Medicine, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Respiratory Medicine, JLN Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manoj Meena
1/H/383, Sector One, Indira Gandhi Nagar, Jagatpura, Jaipur, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijaai.ijaai_25_22

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INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Various triggers, lack of knowledge about the disease, and unawareness about the correct inhalation techniques lead to poor control of the disease. This study aimed to study the factors responsible for uncontrolled asthma using the asthma control test (ACT) and explore other ways to improve asthma control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty diagnosed cases of bronchial asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, >18 years were enrolled for the study in an outpatient setting. The level of asthma control was assessed using the self-administered ACT. Factors responsible for uncontrolled asthma were evaluated using a questionnaire based on GINA guidelines. RESULTS: Our study noted that in the majority (66.11%) of patients, asthma was poorly controlled followed by well-controlled (24.44%). Asthma was perfectly controlled in only 9.44% of patients. The mean value of the ACT score of study subjects was 17.5 ± 4.16 with a median (25th–75th percentile) of 17 (15–20) within the range of 7–25. Smoking (P < 0.0001), poor education about asthma (P < 0.0001), social stigma regarding inhaler use (P < 0.0001), wrong inhalation techniques (P < 0.0001), environmental triggers (P < 0.0001), associated comorbidities (P = 0.005), poor adherence to treatment (P < 0.0001), inappropriate therapy (P < 0.0001), and frequent hospitalizations (P = 0.006) were the factors responsible for uncontrolled asthma. CONCLUSION: The present study identified various factors responsible for the high prevalence of asthma in an outpatient clinical setting. Common risk factors that contribute to poor asthma control were assessed in a comprehensive manner.

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